My research has focused on near-surface materials & processes including field-scale measurements & process-based modeling of soil gas and aqueous transport through sediments, soils, and waste. A major area of interest has been landfill gas generation, transport & emission processes, as well as the technology for commercial-scale landfill CH4 utilization. Recent investigations using a new field-validated model (CALMIM) have focused on how seasonal climate influences CH4 emissions inclusive of oxidation from various cover soils at specific sites. Collaborators during 4 decades have included university researchers, Federal & state research groups, international research & regulatory agencies, private industry, and municipalities in the U.S., Europe, Africa, Australia, and Asia.
Recent projects include:
Environmental Research & Education Foundation (EREF), Raleigh, NC 2011-2014
Emissions of high global warming potential GHGs from California landfills. Funded by California Air Resources Board under subcontract to UIC from California Polytechnic State University:
Effect of biochar-amended cover soils on landfill CH4 emissions and oxidation. Co-P.I., National Science Foundation grant to Dr. Krishna Reddy, Dept. of Civil & Materials Engineering, UIC:
Overview of CALMIM Model:
Working with Kurt Spokas of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), St. Paul, MN during the last decade, a new process-based GHG inventory model for landfill CH4 emissions was developed and field-validated. CALMIM [CAlifornia Landfill Methane Inventory Model], which originally focused on California sites, was improved and internationally field-validated at >25 sites in N. & S. America, Europe, Asia, Australia, and Africa. Via embedded globally-validated USDA climate models with user-supplied information for latitude/longitude, cover materials, boundary conditions & engineered gas recovery, CALMIM models 1-D bidirectional diffusional transport of CH4 and O2 over a “typical annual cycle” [365 d] for individual cover soils at any site worldwide. Using 10-min time-steps and 2.5 cm depth increments, variable CH4 transport and emission rates are related to both fixed and transient soil properties including laboratory-derived relationships for oxidation relative to soil temperature and soil moisture potential. CALMIM includes the major drivers for emissions known from literature: e.g., the physical properties & thickness of site-specific soils, the seasonality of gaseous transport & oxidation in cover materials, and site design & operational factors including cover areas & implementation of gas recovery. CALMIM can improve quantification of landfill sources for urban and regional GHG inventories inclusive of multiple CH4 sources with high individual uncertainties. This JAVA tool is compatible with PC, MAC/OS, and UNIX systems and is freely available using the following link.
Below is an example of typical CALMIM output for a northern California site compared to existing field measurements:
The plots of “CH4 emissions with oxidation” and “CH4 emissions without oxidation” illustrate the temporal variability of emissions from one intermediate cover during an annual cycle, including the seasonality of oxidation due to dynamic soil moisture and temperature changes. In addition to GHG inventory applications, CALMIM is useful for “what if?” modeling of alternative cover materials & thicknesses to minimize emissions at specific sites, scheduling of field measurement campaigns to capture seasonal variability, quantifying expected latitudinal differences in emissions for standardized cover soils, and projecting future emissions under climate change scenarios.
Selected CALMIM publications:
Cambaliza, M.O., Shepson, P.B., Bogner, J., Daulton, D., Stirm, B., Sweeney, C., Montzka, S., Gurney, K., Spokas, K., Salmon, O., Lavoie, T., Hendricks, A., Mays, K., Turnbull, J., Miller, B., Lauvaux, T., Davis, K., Karion, A., Moser, B., Miller, C., Obermeyer, C., Whetstone, J., Prasad, K., Crosson, E., Miles, N., and Richardson, S., Quantification and Source Apportionment of the Methane Emission Flux from the City of Indianapolis, Elementa:Science of the Anthropocene, 3:000037, doi: 10.12952 (2015). Available here.
Spokas, K., Bogner J., and Chanton, J., A Process-Based Inventory Model for Landfill CH4 Emissions Inclusive of Soil Microclimate and Seasonal Methane Oxidation. J. Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 116: paper G04017, 19 p. (2011).
Bogner, J., Spokas, K., and Chanton, J., Seasonal Greenhouse Gas Emissions (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide) from Engineered Landfills: Daily, Intermediate, and Final California Landfill Cover Soils. J. Environ. Quality 40:1010-1020 (2011).
Spokas, K., and Bogner, J., Limits and dynamics of methane oxidation in landfill cover soils. Waste Management 31:823-832 (2011).
Selected publications on landfill & waste processes
1998-present Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, UIC
June, 2014-present Research Professor Emerita
2008-June, 2014 Research Professor
1998-2008 Adjunct Professor
Founder and President, Landfills +, Inc., Wheaton, IL
Landfill gas consulting and applied research for local, national, and international clients.
Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL
1. U. S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) Program: Energy from Municipal Waste. Laboratory, pilot, field and modeling studies on multiple strategies to optimize energy recovery from solid waste. Developed and managed applied field and laboratory research on landfill CH4 generation, transport, recovery, utilization, soil oxidation, and emissions. Technical advisor & peer reviewer for DOE and other U.S. & international agencies. DOE delegate to International Energy Agency Expert Working Group on Landfill Gas. Participant in U.S./U.K. collaborative agreement and initiatives in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Invited participant in IGAC/IGBP committees and conferences.
2. Environmental Control Technology (ECT) Program to minimize acid mine drainage and Land Reclamation Program to develop sustainable reclamation strategies at open and abandoned surface coal mines in the Appalachian, Interior, and selected western basins. Participated in highwall sampling with acid-base accounting for selective overburden placement, geologic mapping in the vicinity of abandoned mined lands, studies of mine water quality and overburden geochemistry in the Appalachian, Interior, and Western U.S. coal basins, and metals mobility in post-treatment settling ponds.
3. Other programs & projects: a. preliminary seismotectonic studies for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in granitic rocks; b. geochemical and hydrogeologic studies of groundwater contaminants at various Federal sites (Illinois, Nebraska, Kansas, California); c. subsurface investigations and shallow groundwater assessment at Argonne National Laboratory; d. natural gas transport and soil oxidation studies for Gas Research Institute (GRI) with NASA Ames; and e. Pleistocene stratigraphic framework studies in support of expedited site characterization.
Senior Project Geologist, Hydrogeology Section
Illinois State Geological Survey, Warrenville, Illinois (Northeastern Illinois Office)
Regional study funded by EPA for Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission (NIPC): "Geology for Planning in Northeastern Illinois." 3-D Pleistocene geologic mapping with interpretive maps for natural resources, groundwater quality, waste disposal, and construction practices.
Knoerle, Bender, Stone, and Associates, Inc.
Consulting Engineers, Chicago
Staff geologist for engineering geology related to subsurface exploration and design recommendations for Tunnel and Reservoir Project (TARP) for Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago], Des Plaines River section. Also, engineering and geotechnical studies (drainage, slope stability) for Illinois State Tollway Authority.
Westenhoff and Novick, Inc.
Consulting Engineers, Chicago
Sole staff geologist for proposed Distributor subway development in central Loop area (Chicago Central Area Transit Project). Subsurface exploration with continuous sampling, establishing Pleistocene stratigraphic framework, design recommendations, aquifer protection studies, and underpinning studies for selected existing structures. Taught unit on geology and soils for company course at Illinois Institute of Technology.
Department of Geological Sciences, University of Illinois, Chicago
Research Assistant, Hydrogeology Section
Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Illinois
Technical support for development of public & private water supplies, interdisciplinary studies of Illinois Pleistocene geology.
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